20 Edible Plants and Fungi You’ll Find on the Appalachian Trail
One of my favorite activities when I worked with the Scouts was to go on nature walks and pick wild berries. Naturally, living in the woods for the past three months and experiencing both spring and summer changes in the plants around me has given me the opportunity to get to know the plants trees and fungi a little more and more each day. Many species that I’ve often overlooked have turned out to be some of the greatest secret treasures the trail has to offer. I figured I’d throw a few of these puppies out there for you other brave souls to scout out and see if you too can identify and enjoy!
Warning: Make sure, particularly with berries and mushrooms, that you are 100% positive on the identification of the species before you consume them! This guide is meant to spark your interest in studying edible and medicinal plants and should not be used as any sort of scientific identifier or medical advice.
1. Blackberry. Rubus fruticosus
(Also check out the red and black raspberries, also Rubus species)
The thorny blackberry bushes produce delicious black and purple berries that ripen in the Summer. The roots and shoots of the plant are also edible when peeled and cooked. The roots can be dried out and infused into a tea that can be used as a herbal remedy for the treatment of diarrhea.
2. Chicory. Cichorium intybus
The purple flowering chicory plant has many uses both as a food source and as a medicinal plant. The leaves can be consumed raw in a salad (or in a hiker’s tuna wrap, yum!) while the roots can be boiled and eaten as a vegetable. When the roots are roasted and pulverized they can also be used as a coffee substitute.
3. Dandelion. Taraxacum officinale
The dandelion plant is probably one of the most easily identifiable plants youll see on the AT. You’ve probably grown up as a child picking these bright yellow flowers or blowing wishes on their puffy seed pods in later stages of the plants maturity. Did you know they were also edible? Indeed, similar to the chicory plant, a dandelion can be eaten raw in salads or boil the roots if you are looking for more veggies. The roots can similarly be used as a coffee substitute and if you look hard enough in the supermarket, you might even see some dandelion wine!
4. Daylily. Hemerocallis fulva
These orange flowers grow all over the trail, mainly on the side of road crossings or in sunny areas. Sometimes they are even grown in front yards as ornamental flowers, but I’d recommend not picking them from someone’s house! The flower itself can be eaten in a variety of ways, boiled or even deep fat fried. The leaves can be eaten raw or cooked up like any other green!
5. Huckleberry. Gaylussacia baccata
A cousin of the blueberry, these look-a-like imposters grow EVERYWHERE on the AT. From VA-PA there have been entire days hikes where the trail is literally lined completely with young huckleberry plants, and for good reason! These plants are short, only about waist high, but they produce dark blue sweet berries with a tart little zing to them. The berries are a little smaller than a wild blueberry and they grow a little more spread out on the plant itself (blueberries grow more in clumpy clusters).
6. Mulberry. Morus nigra
All around the mulberry…..tree? Yes, mulberries grow in big ol trees all up and down the trail. For the most part, I haven’t seen too many spread out in the wild but they are all over towns and parks and other slightly more inhabited areas. I *may* have creeped in a stranger’s backyard once or twice (or three times…) and swiped water bottles full of these sweet purple berries. They are so juicy and derichioush! Warning, these suckers will stain your hands and clothes. Also, as with most fruits, consuming too many will make you poo!
7. Pine Trees. Pinus Species, many varieties.
There are several different pine trees growing all up and down the AT. I can imagine the Forrest Gump spoof now…”We got pitch pine, loblolly pine, white pine, virginia pine….”. While several parts of the tree have a variety of practical and medicinal uses, pine trees are particularly known for the strong teas made by brewing the young green pine needles. This tea is high in vitamins A and C and with a little sugar can be a great post hiking treat!
8. Pokeweed. Phytolacca Americana
This one came as a shocker to me. Growing up I was always told that pokeweed was super toxic and that I should do everything in my power to exterminate it from the fields. Okay well now I know a little more and as it turns out, pokeweed might actually turn out to be a lifesaver for someone someday somehow. Yes, it is true that the entire plant is poisonous. It is also true however that by boiling the plant stalks and berries through multiple water changes you can remove the toxins and have an edible veggie. What nutritional value remains I would guess probably wouldn’t get you very far, but its kinda cool to know you can conquer the toxin after all. DO NOT EAT THE ROOTS!
9. Ramps. Allium trucoccum
If you are a NOBO hiker leaving Georgia in April, keep yer eyes *peeled* for this wild cousin of the onion. Ramps have big wide green leaves and are pretty easy to pull straight up from the side of the trail. We collected them in fields and packed them out for wraps, soups, salads, etc. They are so versatile and are so abundant during the Spring. Many smaller trail towns even host Ramp Festivals in honor of this awesome, delicious plant.
10. Sassafras. Sassafras albidum
The sassafras tree, also known (by me) as the Dinosaur-Foot-Tree is a pretty cool one with some historic significance in the industry of yum. The plants roots and bark were originally used to make root beer, but they can also be used to make a pretty strong tea when dried and steeped. Even the younger twigs and leaves are edible, although as they age they become less palatable.
11. Scallion. Allium Species. Related to ramps.
As a kid we called these suckers ‘Wild Onions’ but they go by many many names. While these grassy little onions grow in many of the same places as ramps, scallions do not have the big broad dark green leaves. Instead they typically have rounder, almost hollow tube-like stems and they grow in clusters or as singles. There is not major pronounced bulb, but some of them might get as fat as your finger. The bulby root and the green stalks are both edible, think of it as a wild leek.
12. Thistle. Cirsium species. Many varieties
Another plant that I was told to kill on contact. Growing up riding horses and playing in fields these things always killed my fun for the day by stabbing me in the shins. The plant grows tall and atop the spiny stalk is a pinkish purple flower that looks like something out of a Dr. Seuss cartoon. If you have the patience to peel back the spikes along the stalks of the plant, chop up the stalks and boil them with the roots to add some veggies to your meal.
13.Water lily. Nymphaea odorata
There are a lot of different types of water lilies growing along the east coast but from the research I have done on them, I have yet to find a toxic one. (If you do please comment!) The flowers, seeds and rhizomes of these cool plants are edible and can be eaten raw, dried or cooked. Boiling the roots of this plants produces a thick liquid that can be used as a gargle for sore throats or as a remedy for diarrhea. (But please, if you are having significant problems be smart and visit a doctor)
14. Wild Grape. Vitus species. Many varieties.
If you are a wine nut and can name and identify the four gazillion types of grapes out there, that’s awesome. You will probably be disappointed with these wild growing, under-producing but still yummy and slightly sour wild grapes. These are scattered all over the trail, I saw the vines in Georgia in early spring when I started the trail and am seeing them now in northern PA although they are still not yet ripe. Once the berries soften and ripen they are very rich in natural sugars and are therefore a great energy source for hikers.
15. Wintergreen. Gaultheria procumbens
This dark green plant is often found on the ground next to huckleberry plants but can be found in a variety of other places. Snap a leaf in half and take a whiff, if you’ve got the right plant you’ll instantly know it by the familiar chewing gum smell! The dark green leaves often have white flowers growing on them and when dried make a refreshing and minty tea!
16. Wood Sorrel. Oxalis Species
Also known as sour grass, wood sorrel almost looks like a cartoon shamrock or clover. The flowers can range from white to yellow to even pink, although I have yet to see pink ones on the trail. The entire plant is edible and even has a medicinal purpose in that it can be used to cure stomach cramps. Beware of eating too much however, particularly if you have kidney or liver problems.
FUNGUS AMONG US!
17. Chantrelle. Cantharellus cibarius
These yellowish orange mushrooms have a convex or vase shaped cap with false gills. When compared to other mushrooms, the false gills under the cap are not easily separated from the rest of the structure and almost look like they have melted into the stalk. The best way to tell a true chantrelle from the poisonous (although not deadly) false chantrelle is to examine the gills as the false chantrelle mushroom has more defined and prominent gills. These prized edible mushrooms are also easily confused with the toxic jack-o-lantern mushrooms, which (like the false chantrelles) have true gills and tend to grow in larger groups with the stems clustered as one. Chantrelles typically crop up as singles or in small bunches with separate stems. If you are not positive on your identification, please don’t try these as the toxins in both look a likes will cause cramping and intestinal adventures.
18. Chicken of the Woods. Laetiporus species
When you find this bad boy you know you’ve scored big. Chicken of the woods grows in shelf like clusters on trees and on the ground (making it almost look like a fungus version of cabbage). This fungus lacks a central stem and when broken open, looks like white chicken meat. A similar cousin, hen of the woods, looks almost identical but is less orange-more brownish tan and bruises more easily. It can be prepared the same way as chicken and is a great addition to your pasta sides or other back country meals, just make sure its fresh or you may find maggots (trail spice!).
19. Oyster Mushroom. Pleurotus ostreatus.
Stir fry, sauté, boiled or baked these white, gilled mushrooms make an excellent addition if your bushwhacking it in the wild. They are commonly found on logs or tree trunks and have a floppy, oyster like appearance. Carry a little garlic and olive oil with you and make yourself some amazing wild onion and mushroom mixes!
20. Rock Tripe. Umbilicaria species. Many varieties.
This is one of those plants you’ve probably seen a hundred times on a hike but never really known what it was. Kinda flat, kinda green, kinda black and not very appetizing looking, rock tripe can be scraped off, cleaned and soaked to make a…..slightly more palatable ingredient. Several species are collected and eaten around the world and I’,\m sure you can find a cool way to cook them up….probably with lots and lots of salt, oil, butter and strong spices though…..
So there you have it, twenty edibles you will no doubt encounter while through hiking the AT. These plants and fungi are fun to seek out and identify if nothing else, and if your feeling froggy why not get your camp stove fired up and give them a whirl? =) Plus, all hikers love food and if you spread your knowledge and share your findings with your fellow trail mates you are sure to get the best camp spot! 😉
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You forgot Morel mushrooms. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morchella
Growing up in Virginia I’m familiar with all but pokeweed, lilys and the fungi you mentioned. I would add paw paws, portobello mushrooms, and grasses such as Timothy which can be made palatable by cooking into bread,
I’m in the southern coal fields of West Virginia and I can remember my grandmother picking lots of other wild plants for meals. Including, tangle gut, and wild mustard. The only one I’m familiar with is the one you call pokeweed, of course, we just call it poke. I eat at least one mess every spring. It isn’t boiled in multiple water. The leaves are just boiled, and the stalks are cut into bite size pieces, rolled in corn meal, and fried. It’s good eaten but some people, including myself have trouble with the acidity. It I eat too much for too many days in a row, it takes the hide off the inside of my mouth. There is even an old song about poke. I believe it’s called pokE salad annie.
To my knowledge it is the seed inside the berry of the poke plant which is toxic. To release the toxicity the seed must be chewed. So swallowing a whole berry with the seed intact would not hurt you. I would not advise eating the root but it can be tinctured into very powerful medicine.
Great article! Just one correction. The native mulberry tree in America is the Morus Rubra, Red Mulberry tree. Yes the berries still turn black. Morus Nigra is not a native species in America, nor is it common. Morus Nigra is not very cold hardy and would definitely not be able to survive on most of the Trail over the winter. It also does not disperse very easily, unlike the Morus Rubra. Birds plant Morus Rubra everywhere they leave droppings.
Just a little FYI, since people may actually follow this guide (because it’s GREAT) the roots of the plant should be prepared as concoctions (simmered on a heat source), not infusions (steeped after removing from heat source). You won’t get a therapeutic effect by ‘infusing’ roots. You’ll also murder therapeutic constituents by ‘concocting’ leaves and flowers. They should also be covered whether you’re infusing or concocting to prevent the essential oils from flying off into the sky.
Great post! Fiddleheads, and branch lettuce (saxifrage), violets, and smilax. Solomon seal when young is a great one, and so is Indian cucumber, but only if you collect sparsely from a larger population.
Wouldn’t it be illegal to uproot a sassafras tree?
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Hi there! Can you tell me which of these are good for picking in April? I’m taking my kids hiking in Gatlinburg for spring break and would love to do a scavenger hunt of this list you’ve provided.
I was taught that you should prepare Pokeweed before it flowers & that it should be washed and boiled at least three times.. It is a good spring tonic. The berries are used as a dye and medicinally. The root and the seed, if chewed, are poisonous.
I think you should spell I’m right.